Diet & Nutrition: Carnivores; will generally eat all kinds of live foods. Slow feeder and will eat pellets as well as a variety of meaty foods such as feeder fish, worms and crustaceans; ie. mysis, shrimp, and krill. Frozen foods such as brine shrimp is also considered as a good protein source.
Breeding & Spawning: Egg layers that form matriarchal families. Monogamous, where one male spawns with several females. Takes about 3 to 4 years for these fish to reach sexual maturity, and males mature more slowly than females. Female is a mouth brooder that is a cave spawner in the wild. In the aquarium she prefers spawning on the substrate.
Gender: The male is larger, and often has a more pronounced cranial hump than the female.